Annotated Review > Teaching Pronunciation 1Next.gif

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1. Historical Overview Description


1940s-1960s

From the 1940s into the 1960s the behavioristic audio lingual method

stressed the importance of pronunciation through imitaion drills,

memorisation of dialogs, pattern practice and articulatory

explanation.

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1970s


In 1970s these practices were questioned w

hether they were effective.

In 1970s teaching pronunciation was ignored.

People were focused more on fluency than form.


Current Theory


There is a balance between accuracy and fluency. Both are considered valuable.




2. Describe the two Basic Approaches in teaching Pronunciation


1 Intuitive-immitative.

The learner listens to and imitates the sounds and rhythms of the

target language without the assistance of explicit instruction.

In the early years this approch was a drawback. However, nowadays

this problem has been overcomed by technology.

2 Analytic-linguistic.

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Depends on structured teaching

utilizing articulatory descriptions

and charts of speech apparatus,

phonetic alphabet and vowel charts,

variet of interactive speech

analysis software and websites.







3. Areas of Pronunciation


(a) Stress

(b) Rythm

(c) Intonation

(d) Sound spelling relationships




4. Emphasis in the teaching of Pronunciation

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Emphasis has moved from the teaching to the learning

pronunciation with the focus on engaging the learners

more in their own progress to meet their particular needs.









5. Dual-focus oral communication


(a) Micro level: Is focused on linguistic and phonetic- phonological competence

through practice of segmentals and the supersegmentals.


(b) Macro level: Attends to more global elementsof communicability with the goal

of developing discourse, sociolinguistic and stragetic competencies by using

the language for communicative purposes.




6. Describe the 4 goals of pronunciation instruction


1. Functional intelligibility

Helps learners develop spoken English that is reasonably

easy to understand and not distracting to listeners.


2. Functional communicability.

Helps the learner develop spoken English that serves individual

communicative needs effectively for a feeling of communicative competence.


3. Increased self confidencepronunciation1.jpg

Helps learner become more comfortable and confident in using spoken

English, and to help them develop a positive self image as a competent

non native speaker of English and a growing feeling of empowerment

in oral communication.


4. Speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use

beyond the classroom. Helps the learner develop speech awareness, personal

speech monitoring skills, and speech adjustments strageties that will enable

them to continue to develop intelligibility, communicability and confidence

outside class as well as inside.




7. Types of sources that enhance pronunciation


1. Articulatory charts that show front and side views of the

mouth as the speakers produces a targeted sound.


2. Sample words utilising the targeted sound. mexpress-pronunciation.gif


3. Minimal pairs / comparison words. A presentation of two similar

sounding words usually with only one minimal phoneme defferent.


4. Listening descrimination of minimal pairs within a sentence

students listen to a sentence and identify which one of the two

minimal pair words the speaker is saying.


5. Sample sentences within several words utilising the target sound.


6. Dictation- students listen and repeat or write what the speaker is saying.


7. Cloze exercises - students listen to sentences and

select / produce correct missing words.


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8. Suprasegmental exercises that practice intonation, rhythm, stress, and timing