Annotated Review > Writing Part 1

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WEEK 7A – Teaching Writing

The Importance of Grammar and Vocabulary in Reading

Butler-Pascoe, M.E. & Wiburg, K.M (2003). Technology and Teaching English Language Learners.
Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5: Using Technology to Teach Readubg Skills, pages 137 to 153:


1. What is Writing?


Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the

use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). Link




2. Describe brifely the 4 apparoaches to teaching

second language writing, according to Raimes (1991):


(a) Focus on Form (138-143)


when_writing_essays.pngIn 1960 writing was viewed as a means

of reinforcing speech patterns and

writing instruction focused on sentence

levels linguistic forms. By the 1970s

instruction moved beyond the sentence

level to to control discourse in the form

of sentence combining and controlled

compositions that required learners to

manipulate certain features of whole

paragraphs, such as changing the text

from active and passive voice or changing

the tense. Technology today offers focused

practice of grammar structure in interactive

formats for all ages and levels.

Students can get immediate feedback and

can have information repeated without

emparrassment. Practice the structure in

several types of guided exercises, students

see the rule applied in a reading, listen to its

use, and finally incorporate it into their writing .



(b) Focus on the Writer and the Writing Process (143-150)


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In the 1970s thefocus of instruction moved from language focused

acticities to learner centered tasks in which stidents assume greater

control over what they write, how they write it and the evaluation

of their own writing. Teachers allowed time for pre-writing activities,

including brainstorming and bridging to students' background knowledge.

Students were encouraged to write multiple drafts, communicative with

authentic audiences, share feedback with peers. Content and student

expression were viewed as more important than linguistic correctness.



(c) Focus on the Content (150-151)

Many teachers and theorists began to focus on the content of the writing

and the academic expectations placed on their students.Research demostrated

the need for students to develop cognitive academic language proficiency required

for success in matter courses. Research has also shown that literature serves as a

rich content for language development.





writing_with_pen.jpg(d) Focus on the Reader (152-153)

In this approach ESL teachers typically develop

theme based lessons that practice

various rhetorical forms and assist students

in the development of academic writing

skills that are transferable across the curriculum.

Through technology and certain software students can get informatioin about

and see models of writing at the sentence, paragraph and essay levels.

Moreover, through technology students now have access

to an academic audience that is worldwide.


Butler-Pascoe, M.E. & Wiburg, K.M (2003). Technology and Teaching English Language Learners.
Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5: Using Technology to Teach Readubg Skills, pages 137 to 153:



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