Butler-Pascoe, M.E. & Wiburg, K.M (2003). Technology and Teaching English Language Learners.
Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5: Using Technology to Teach Readubg Skills, pages 114 to 137:


1. What is Reading?

Reading is what happens when people look at a text
and assign meaning to the written symbol in the text.

2. Describe briefly the 3 basic models of how reading occurs:

(a) Bottom-up
Reading is a primarily a decoding process in which the reader
matches written symbols with their aural equicalents. Readers
first identify the written letters with the matching sounds (phonemes)
and then blend the sounds and letters together to identify words.

(b) Top-down
According to Goodman (1967) reading is a "psycholinguistic guessing
game" in which th reader receives input from the text, makes predictions
tests and confirms or revises those predictions, and so forth as he or she
reads. According to this prespective efficient readers read quickly,
test their hypotheses as the read, and reread material only when they
are unable to confirm their predictions.

(c) Interactive

There are two concepts of interaction. The first is the interaction

between the reader and the text. The reader drawson both his or

her background knowledge and information from the 179116_large.jpegprinted

text in order to create meaning.

The second interaction is between two

sets of different kinds of cognitive skills

that Grabe (1991) terms indetification and

interpretation. The identification skills are

lower levels skills that allow the reader to quickly and unconsciously identify

letters, words, and grammatical structures.

With fluent readers this autimaticity occurs simultaneously

with the higher level skills that account for the reader being

able to comprehend and interpret the reading.

3.What are schemata?

The reader brings previously acquired background knowledge
organised into interrelated patterns o schemata to the reading process.
The reader creates meaning by relating the text to this background
knowledge of customs and beliefs from his her own expreriences.

4. What are the characteristics of fluent reading?
Rapid, interactive, flexible, purposeful, comprehending and gradual.

(a) Automatic Perceptual / Identification skills
Automatic recognition skills allow the reader to identify letters
and words without being consciously aware of the process.

(b) Structural Skills (Grammar) and Knowledge
Grammatical structures provide readers significant information
about the content of the reading passage.
e.g An 's after a proper noun signals to the reader
that someone owns something.

(c) How can technology assist in dev553177-leapfrog-tag-reading-system-l.jpgeloping structural skills?

Technology provides interactive
exercises that uses video, sound,
graphics, animations.
Students are able through these
software to practice syntax and
grammatical structures. Many of
these exercises are in a game form
so that it keeps students modivated
and interested.

(d) Vocabulary Development: Give 3 reasons why
vocabulary is so vital to reading comprehension.

First: Readers in a second language (2000 to 7000) need to
have a vocabulary more similar in number to that of a native speakers
(10000 to 100000) if they are expected to read with a fluency
approaching that of first language readers.

Second: Readers need to know a large percentage of the words
in a given text in order to conprehend the meaning of the reading
or to guess the meaning of words unfamiliar to them.

Third : Vocabulary is not acquired in quick doses, but rather is
a process of increamental learning and constant reinforcement.
Moreover, It is not sufficient to know just one meaning of the
word in a particular context. Reading assists in vocabulary
development by providing sufficient repetition of new words
in multiple contexts.

(e) How does technology assist in vocabulary development?


Many features of the computer enhance the vocabulary. English
language learners benefit from reading for fluency, whreby they
are encouraged to guess the meaning of unknown words from
the context of the reading. The pictures, animation and other
contexual cues provided by interactive CD-ROM books assist
in this strategy.